Week 6: Working Practices in the Media Industry: Unit 3

I am going to research all the different working practices available and make an informed decision on which one I feel is the best option.


(Bold = Negative)

Freelance – Is were someone is self employed but does not work for the same people long term, they move from job to job as and when they are needed. They tend to get paid more than permanent job roles do however they have less work throughout the year.

There are many pros and con of working Freelance. (Negatives are in bold)

  • Flexible (different types of jobs), there are a lot of different jobs you can choose to do or choose not to do.
  • Skills base improves, there is a wide range of different jobs involved whilst working Freelance so you gain a lot of skill and experience.
  • Lack of security, you only work (1/3 of the year) therefor could be out of work for long periods of time.
  • Need to network.
  • Interesting, you have a variety of different jobs to choose from so if you get tired of a certain thing you can choose not to do it.
  • Independent, you have unlimited freedom therefor you can pick and choose which jobs you wish to take.
  • Saying no, it is hard to say no as you don’t know for sure when your next job will be.
  • Organised, you need to stay organised to keep a good reputation in the industry.

http://www.indeed.co.uk/Freelance-Media-jobs This website has example of Freelance jobs that you can apply for and tells you everything about the job and how much you will get paid. There is one for a Freelance video editor, it is located in London, the hours are not said however you can get in touch to find out and the pay is negotiable.

Contract (permanent) – Is were you work for a company permanently and get paid by a day rate and work on all there projects.

There are many pros and con of a Permanent Contract. (Negatives are in bold)

  • Regular pay, unlike working Freelance you are hired permanently and get paid at a day rate.
  • Regular hours, again unlike Freelance you work the 9 till 5 every weekday however it may vary depending on the project you are working on.
  • Repetitive, it can tend to be the same thing day in day out. For example if you were a camera man working for the shopping channel then you would be on set recording that all day  
  • Same subject.
  • Safe, you are assured work all the time you are employed by that company so you don’t have to worry about being unemployed.

http://www.indeed.co.uk/cmp/Film-AM/jobs/Camera-Operator-9646623fa9cbc0e1?q=Full+Time+camera+operator This is a full time job application for a camera operator/video editor, the salary is dependent on your experience and the location is in Nottingham however they accept people form Derby, Loughborough and Mansfield.

Short term contract – You work for a company but only for a fixed amount of time and on certain projects.

There are many pros and con of a Short term Contract. (Negatives are in bold)

  • Work on more than one project, you work on more than one project with the company rather than being permanently employed.
  • Regular pay, you are on a regular pay check so don’t have to worry about not being paid enough.
  • Regular hours, you are given regular hours so are not out of work certain days.
  • Fixed length of time, you are not employed permanently by the company but are employed for certain projects and once they are done you look for other work.

Project contract – You are employed for one project and have regular pay and hours during your employment.

  • Working on one project, unlike being on a Short term project you are employed for one project and then are done after that.
  • Similar to freelance but longer so more secure, you work regular hours and get regular pay while you are employed for that certain project.
  • Less pay, it less pay than Freelance however there is more reliable work, therefor safer as you are less likely to be unemployed.

Self employed –

  • Own business: video/film, you can start your own business and choose your hours.
  • Your the boss, your always in employment if you have clients.
  • More stable(ish)
  • You work you earn, you can work whenever you want if you work longer hours then you earn more.
  • You find the client, if you can’t find anyone to do work for you will be unemployed until you do. 
  • You are responsible for everything, You are in charge of getting everything organised. You have to find the clients and also people to work for you.
  • Pressure, as you are in charge there is pressure to find clients and people to hire.


I think after researching all the types of working practices that being Self employed is the best, I would have chose Freelance however I think that self employed being more safe and reliable work it makes it the better option.

Week 6: Working Practices in the Media Industry: Unit 3

Week 5: How to Become a Sound Engineer and what they do?: Unit 3

For this piece of work I am going to investigate the different skills and knowledge needed to obtain a job involving sound in the media industry. I am going to explore the different jobs there are involving sound and explain what they would do.


What do they do?:

There are a lot of jobs involving sounds when creating a production, such as:

  • Boom Operator
  • Sound Engineer
  • Sound Assistant
  • Director of Sound
  • Foley Operator

Boom Operator:

The Boom Operators operate the boom microphone while shooting, a lot of skill is need to do this as they need to be careful of specific things. They need to familiarize themselves with the camera movements so they don’t show up, cast a shadow or a refection in shot. Along with the camera movements they also need to remember the script word for word so they can position the boom microphone correctly and follow the actors when they move to ensure the best quality of sound.

The boom Operator is also responsible for all the sound equipment such as clip microphones, they make sure they’re positioned correctly and all working fine. If the Boom Operator does a good job they can save a lot of money for the production as the actors wont a have to re-record the lines in a record studio and redub it.

Sound Engineer:

After the Sound Assistant has set up all the equipment being used the Sound Engineer operates it during the shoot. They would also record each instrument in a song being played separately as different tracks, then mix all the tracks together to make the final piece.

Sound Assistant:

The Sound Assistant does a lot of things generally to make the Sound Engineers job easier, he sets up most of the equipment for the Sound Engineer to operate during the shoot. Like the Boom Operator they need a good understanding of the script as they may need to stand in as a second Boom Operator on bigger shoots in order for this to be the best quality possible they work very closely with the Boom Operator and Sound Supervisor.

Sound Designer:

The Sound Designers are in control of both post and pre production sounds, they decide what sound are going to be needed for the type of project they’re taking part in. They may record original sounds if they need to. They spend a lot of time manipulating the sounds their working with using things like synthesizers, this is the mostly experimenting with what sounds good and what doesn’t and once they have done all this it is all mixed and put into the final piece.

Foley Operator:

The Foley Operator uses props to create realistic sounds for the film such as if there was a creaky door then they would have some kind of door hinge on a piece of wood and loosen or tighten it depending on the sound they require. This pert of the production can vary in the amount of time taken depending on the budget, the reason for this is that some sound effects require certain objects and if the Foley Operator has to go track it down specifically then it will waste time.

How to become one?:

Boom Operator:

You will need experience as it is a tricky job, it can be paid or voluntary in film, television, community media, the music industry or even hospital radio similar to the Foley operator. if you can become a Sound Assistant for a Sound Mixer you may be able to operate a boom on bigger shoots.

You don’t need any qualifications however there are many courses available to improve your knowledge.

Sound Engineer:

There are a lot of courses that teach you everything that you need to know about the equipment used a Sound Engineer.

Sound Assistant:

The best way in is to a runner or a trainee and follow someone who is a more professional, experienced at the job learning first hand how to do the job you wish to do. You can apply through Trainee Finder to become a Trainee in the industry.

You don’t need a qualification however you would need to show a lot of interest, be punctual and professional.

Foley Operator:

Starting out as a runner in a sound studio would be a good place to start because you get to see them at work and hopefully become an assistant for a Sound Editor or Foley Mixers. You could also apply through Trainee Finder which give you experience of being apart of the industry and help you meet people already in the industry who can recommend or even hire you.

You will need a degree in one of these five things, Arts, Music, Electronics, Maths, or Sound Technology.


I knew of these job roles before this lesson but now I understand them in more detail and how I would start to become one if I wanted to. I also found the Foley Operator really interesting and never realised that this existed. 

Week 5: How to Become a Sound Engineer and what they do?: Unit 3

Week 4: Cameraman – How to become one and what do they do? Unit 3

In this blog post I am going to explain how someone would get into a Camera related job in the film industry, what they would need to know and what they would need to have. I am also going to explain all the different jobs that involve Camera work.


What do they do?:

There are many different kinds of jobs involved with cameras such as, camera assistant, camera operator, director of photography/cinematographer and focus puller.

The camera assistant:

These are people who help the camera operator with jobs and do what ever they are told, this tend to be preparing equipment and the setup before shoot so it ready for everyone else to go straight to shooting the scene. They don’t use any of the equipment just set it up.

Camera operator:

This person personally operates the camera and has the camera assistant running around for him. he doesn’t tend to set up him self but knows how to use the camera to get the best shots for the scene. They do a range of things from standing still for a still shot or running around with a steady cam on or using a dolly.

Director of photography/Cinematographer:

They are in charge of what shots are used in the scene they talk with the director to try to understand their vision and recreate it on-screen the best they can. They would also talk with the camera operator as he is the one actually carrying out the shot.

Focus puller:

When the shoot is happening there is no time for the camera operator to adjust the focus for the certain technique and that’s where the focus puller comes in. While the camera operator is lining up shots a filming the scene the focus puller is adjusting the focus whenever it is needed. They don’t have time to look through the view finder so they have to know specifics such as depending how far the subject is from the camera is how in/out of focus they are so they know where to adjust it so that it draws attention to the important character in the scene.



How to become one?:

You can get a degree in film production which you can then specify into what ever it is in the industry your interested in however in camera work for example you tend to start at camera assistant and move your way up. You can get into the business without a degree but you need a lot of luck. If you know someone in the industry you may be able to start out as a runner and progress from there, it may take longer but it is possible.

You have to develop your eyes to be able to identify the different techniques used in film, the best way of doing this is watching films with a better understanding of what is going on behind the scenes. Once you understand the ins and outs of the techniques then you can start using them yourself in one of the jobs above or in your own work.


I learned about the job of a focus puller and that the camera man doesn’t always change the focus himself. I understand in more detail each induavidual job around the camera and what they involve.

Week 4: Cameraman – How to become one and what do they do? Unit 3

Week 3: Lighting tech, what they do and how to become one. Unit 3

For this task I am going to investigate what it takes to have a job in lighting and the skills and the knowledge you would need to achieve this.


Jobs associated with lighting are Theatre, Film/TV, Corporate/Concerts/Special events. Lighting is one of the rare skills which is involved in all three things and is used the same. You can be a lighting technician on a film set then later in the week you could work in theatre.

What they do:

There are three stages of the lighting career which are the following lighting assistant, lighting technician and lighting designer.

Lighting Assistant:

Lighting assistant are people who help the lighting technician do their job, they will do similar tasks as the lighting technician but will follow the lighting technician around and do what they tell them. for example they would sometimes prepare the equipment so it is ready for the lighting technician to put into place before shooting. Lighting assistants learn about how all the equipment and how other roles work on the job and the majority of the time they are attending a college course at the same time as working.

Lighting Technician:

The lighting technician is the person that the lighting assistant helps, they set up the lights depending on the way the lighting designer has designed the lighting on set. They have to look after all the equipment they are responsible for and also to keep them clean. Some lighting technicians set up the lights before the shoot and others reposition the lights during the shoot. They help with power supplies as well as they need a lot of it for the lights.

Lighting Designer:

The lighting designer is the one who before shooting starts sits down with the director and designs the kind of lighting they are going to have in their production and try to mimic the directors vision. They also work with the cinematographers, set designer and costume designer. They talk with these roles for different but similar reasons, the cinematographers is so that they can get an idea of the shot types they are using in the film so they can angle the lights perfect with cameras position in mind. The set designer for the same reason that they can work together to get the lighting perfect with the surroundings and where and when the subject will be, finally costume designers is so that the lighting shows the important parts of the characters outfit if there is any and if the costumes will conflict with the lighting.


How to become one:

The way you can start to become a light assistant which is the beginning of the chain you will need to apply for an apprenticeship with a lighting company because you would most likely need to attend a college course in the days off, you will work for roughly three years until the course is over and then you can begin to work on location for small production then with experience you can move onto feature films and adverts. Once you become a lighting assistant you will gradually make your way up the chain.

https://www.gov.uk/guidance/technical-theatre-apprenticeships On this site you can apply for an apprenticeship for technical theatre which is the same skills used in the film industry just without the live audience.


This lesson with Jenni was interesting and I learned a lot about jobs related to lighting, what the jobs consist off and how to get into the industry.

Week 3: Lighting tech, what they do and how to become one. Unit 3

Comparing Primary or Secondary as a source for research

I am going to use my primary photos were I used different framing techniques and compare them against secondary iconic film stills in order to see what sort of differences there are if any.


This is a secondary source still from a scene in ‘The Shining’ it uses natural framing to draw focus towards the subjects face, it uses a medium close up to show the emotion on the characters face. This is iconic because this is the scene that comes to mind whenever the film is mentioned, the saying that goes along with this scene also has a part in making this scene iconic.

The photo next to it I took at the college these two are slightly similar in that they are both medium close-ups and show the emotion on the subjects face. The still from the film has a better effect than the one I took as mine was in an everyday environment, whereas the film still was shot in a professional movie set and had better access

The difference between these two images are big, the primary source is produced by me so I had full control over every aspect of it and in this case it was the type of shot I used. On the other hand I didn’t have access to professional actors or locations to make the shot complete. I also had limitations to what I was able to do, such as in the primary source a hole in the door has been made and used as natural framing however I was unable to do this as I was at a public college.

The secondary image has the strength of natural framing, the primary image doesn’t use that instead the background is out of focus. This does a similar job of focusing all the attention towards the subject but not as good because you can still make out the background and the subjects surroundings which is a little distracting.

The acting in these to images are completely different the secondary has definitely got the strongest. In the primary image produced by me the subject is a fellow student without much acting experience, whereas the secondary has professional actor Jack Nicholson who has been in the acting career for a long time and has a lot of experience.


This shot from ‘Saving Private Ryan’ uses a lot of the rules of composition such as, depth of field, rule of thirds and looking into space. Depth of field is used in this shot to focus on the subjects face. The subject is looking into space to represent that something is coming, a medium close up is used with this so we can see the subjects emotion to try to understand what is coming.

The photo next to it is another image I took at the college using depth of field, it has the same effect as the background is blurred which bring out the subjects face and emotion. The shot type medium close up is another similarity between these two images as they both cut of at the shoulder area.

The photo on the right is primary which means I had full control over what the outcome will look like and how much depth of field I used. However the one on the left is secondary which means I don’t have any control over so I wont be able to get exactly what I want out of the photo.

Both images use depth of field however I believe the secondary image I took uses it better as more of the background is in shot which put the subject in better context. The primary image has a small corner out of focus and also the end of the subjects gun.


This is a scene from ‘Saw’ where the use very obvious rule of thirds and is a medium long shot. This shot uses a medium long shot to make sure everything of importance is in the scene, the character, the saw and the characters foot chained to the pole. The use of rule of thirds tie in with the shot type as everything is positioned perfectly.

These two images uses rule of thirds the same way, to the left is the subject which is the focus of the image, and to the right is there surroundings. the use of medium long shots are similar as well as both subjects feet are mostly out of frame.

The only down side is the lack of props and locations. on the right is primary source produced by me. I am at a college which doesn’t have a range of props to use for the scene and I am restricted to one location whereas the producer of the primary source is a professional and has access to a variety of props and locations.

The use of rule of thirds in the secondary image was a lot better than it was in the primary image, this is because in the secondary image there is no real context of what the subject is doing there. However the primary image explains itself pretty clearly and also portrays the character is planning on doing very well.


This scene from ‘Pulp Fiction’ uses rules of thirds and looking into space. The still from the scene contains two subjects both in perfect positions for the rule of thirds, they’re both looking into space which creates the impression they are looking at someone or something they are also aiming their guns slightly downwards which suggest there in a powerful position.

The photo I took at the college is side by side with the film still, they are similar as they both use the rule of thirds and looking into space. there also both medium long shots as the subjects both cut of at the knees.

The scene on the right is a primary source produced by me, I am at the college and cannot block of areas for a shoot as people need to get to there classes. However the scene to the left is produced by a professional company who can rent out private locations to film.


The image on the left is from the film ‘The Good, the Bad and the Ugly’ it uses an extreme close up to really show the emotion of the subjects eyes and sometimes the reaction shot.

The one to the right is a primary source that I took which is a lot similar to the movie still, they both use extreme close-ups and have the same emotion in their eyes and have shadows over their eyes.

These two photos are very similar, it doesn’t matter that I don’t have access to professional actors or locations because it is an extreme close up and you can’t see the background in the shot or put the subject in context. They both do a good job of showing how the character is feelings.


This was very interesting to see how similar a photo can look just by using the same techniques but different locations and actors. On the other hand how different it looks by just changing one aspect such as lighting.

Comparing Primary or Secondary as a source for research

Week 1 and 4 – Recreation Plan – Unit 2 – 3.1

I am going to imagine I am recreating the TV programme life on mars, I’m going to research every aspect of the programme and try to find props, locations, actors etc.  



I would need a minimum of £5,000 for this production as there is a lot of props and locations needed for the programme, a few scenes would require closing roads from the public so that they wouldn’t get in the way.


The location on the right would work well for the me as it has a lot of back alleys and similar types of buildings the chase scene at the beginner of Life on Mars.

The location on the left would work well for the scene by the park as there is a tower block there and uses an aerial shot from high up.

https://www.airbnb.com you can hire houses in any location. For me I would hire one out in London for the scene at the start when the characters are knocking on the door looking for a suspect.

When filming in a public area you may need to close off roads for a scene, this website http://filmlondon.org.uk/filming_in_london/planning_your_shoot/get-permission-film/road-closures-filming gives you all the information you need for doing that. I can also get in contact with the local council and police department to clarify that I can do what I am doing and that it wont make to much of a disturbance.



http://www.camberwellstudios.co.uk/kit-crew.html this website allows you to get in contact with someone you can hire a crew from. They have camera operators, makeup artists and sometimes a whole production team. Because there is such a big crew to pick from there is bound to be someone with the experience and an understanding in the type of shoot you’re trying to achieve.

In the chase scene at the beginning there is a dog barking at the main character as he’s running through. http://www.a-zdogs.co.uk/dogs-for-hire/large you can find dogs for hire on this website there is many different breed of dogs to choose from.

http://www.moviestunts.ws/stuntcoordinator_contact.html this website you can hire stunt men for scenes that may put the actor at risk, the stunt men are professionally trained to safely achieve the stunts . http://www.cuttingedgecombat.co.uk/Contact-Us-122.html This website provides you with people who can teach your actors how to safely carry out a fight scene.

You will need catering crew as you will be shooting for hours at a time and need to keep the cast and crew fed. you can hire caterers from this website http://www.cateringhire.co.uk/


There are many websites similar to this one (http://www.peopleperhour.com/freelance/actors?ref=search&sort=most-relevant) where you can hire actors for a certain price per hour. Some are even willing to work with you immediately. This website also has professional writers, photographer’s e.c.t which is good because you can hire people to your needs. There are also reviews for each person so you can read up on them to see if there what you want.

To gain extras for the film this website http://www.famestreet.com/auditions.htm will work, you put up an advertisement showing your film and what it will be about so that the extras know what they’re going to do and then they just apply if they want to be a part of it.


The website http://www.tellycars.com/vehicles/police/4/ is where you can hire emergency service cars which come with free professional drivers for all the other scenes involving the cars. This will come in handy as Life on Mars based around the police department. Also to get the generic props such as outfits I will check local shops and online shopping websites such as Amazon.

For pedestrian cars you can go to this website http://www.parkroyalofficefurniture.co.uk/desks and hire cars for a certain amount of time, however you would have to ask permission for the car to be in the production.

This website is where you can hire the police uniforms and also hire police cars as well http://www.shootingstarsuniforms.com/uniforms.html

http://www.parkroyalofficefurniture.co.uk/desks On this website you can hire desks and furniture, this may be useful for the scenes in side the residential houses, police station and interrogation room.


http://www.mediadoghire.com/category/56 this website allows you to hire cameras, spotlights, lenses or anything you may need at a day rate for reasonably cheap depending on the equipment. You can also rent them out at a weekly rate however that is more expensive but cheaper In the long run, depends on how long you going to shoot for.

You will need some where high up for an aerial shot of the park scene, you could use a crane or a high up apartment. http://www.griphirecompanylondon.co.uk/camera-crane-hire-London.htm You can hire cranes for the camera from this website.















I learnt there is alot of research that goes into project before any recording is started on the production.

Week 1 and 4 – Recreation Plan – Unit 2 – 3.1

Week 2: What does Director do? and How do you become one?

In this post I am going to research what it takes to be a Director, the knowledge you would need to know and the direction someone would need to head if you would want to become one.


To become a Director is hard you need the knowledge, the resources and you need a lot of luck.


Submitting your work to a film festival such as Sundance and having a producer in the audience who is intrigued by your project. This could lead to one time opportunities where they refer you to a director/producer with an interest in your style of work or they could hire you themselves.

You can create a small production company with people you trust and just make films with the knowledge you have. The more you make the more someone is going to see your work and reach out to you.


However you need a good team in order to carry out your vision, if you have a team who sees things the same way you do they will understand how you work and make the project a lot easier to perfect. Make a name for yourself by setting up a production company with a team you trust to create good content, then people will begin to recognise the name and begin to watch films simply because you made it.

You also need equipment, you don’t need the best camera but one that allows you to create films for yourself. similar to what I said about luck is that the more you make the more you’ll be seen, therefore equipment is a huge part of that process.


There are many Film Production courses in universities out there for you to learn what goes into making a film project. Almost every university has one, some better than others. There are also Film Schools which specialize in what film production involves.

Quentin Tarantino:

In January 1992 Quentin Tarantino became known after his first time writing and directing a film, Reservoir Dogs was shown at the Sundance film festival, the film had amazing reviews and Tarantino become famous very quickly.

He said ‘When people ask me if I went to film school I tell them, ‘no, I went to films.’ this shows experience and an interest, he went to the cinema and watched full length feature films and saw how the audience react to certain things in the film so that he can include the things they like into his own work and leave or remove the things they disliked as an audience.

Quentin Tarantino uses trademarks which makes him recognisable, he has a love for violence and sometimes uses over the top gore in his films. His audience has come to love it with him which makes him instantly recognisable.



This piece of work was interesting as I didn’t know how difficult it was to become a director, you cant just be great at it you also need to know the ins and out of almost every other job involved as you work closely with a lot of them. It was also interesting to find out how someone with great knowledge of film and directing came about become one for my example I chose Quentin Tarantino.

Week 2: What does Director do? and How do you become one?